Clean Room Technology Then And Now

The principle of Clean room design starts from almost 150 years ago when these units were used for bacterial control in hospitals. Today, clean rooms have completed a long way and developed to the modern technology. In earlier day, these clean rooms were designed for fulfilling the requirement of clean environment for industrial manufacturing during 1950s and the same clean rooms are also used for variety of applications in many industries.

A clean room is defined as a place that provides attentively controlled environment that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as airborne microbes, dust, chemical vapors, and aerosol particles. When the air entered in a clean room it is filtered and then continuously circulated through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) filters. These filters are used to remove internally generated contaminants. The persons, who work inside the clean room, wear protective clothing while enter and exit through airlocks, while equipment and furniture inside the clean room is specially designed to produce minimal particles.

Today, more than 30 different industry segments utilize clean rooms including semiconductor and other electronic components, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries.

Modern clean rooms were developed during the Second World War to improve the quality and reliability of instrumentation used in manufacturing guns, tanks and aircraft. During this time, HEPA filters were also developed to contain the dangerous radioactive, microbial or chemical contaminants that resulted from experiments into nuclear fission, as well as research into chemical and biological warfare.

On the other hand, clean rooms for manufacturing and military purposes were being developed; the importance of ventilation for contamination control in hospitals was being realized. The use of ventilation in a medical setting gradually became standard practice during this time.

The concept of laminar flow was introduced during 1950s and 1960s, when NASAs space travel program was initiated. This marked a turning point in clean room technology and from this time, the evolution of clean rooms gained momentum.

In the late 1950s, the Sandia Corporation (which later became Sandia National Laboratories) began investigating the excessive contamination levels found in clean rooms. Researchers found that clean rooms were being operated at the upper practical limits of cleanliness levels and identified a need to develop alternative clean room designs.

In 1961, Professor Sir John Charnley and Hugh Howorth, showed a tremendous improvement in unidirectional airflow by creating a downward flow of air from a much smaller area of the ceiling, directly over the operating table.

Also in 1961, the first standard written for clean rooms, known as Technical Manual TO 00-25-203, was published by the United States Air Force. This standard considered clean room design and airborne particle standards, as well as procedures for entry, clothing and cleaning.

In 1962, Patent No. 3158457 for the laminar flow room was issued. It was known as an ultra clean room.
By 1965, there have been several vertical down flow rooms were used in which the air flow ranged between 15 m (50 ft)/min and 30 m (100 ft)/min. It was during this time that the specification of 0.46 m/s air velocity and the requirement for 20 air changes an hour became the accepted standard.

By the early 1970s the principle of laminar flow had been translated from the laboratory to wide application in production and manufacturing processes.

The 1980s saw continued interest in the development of the clean room. By this stage, clean room technology had also become of particular interest to food manufacturers.

In 1987, a patent was filed for a system of partitioning the clean room to allow zones of particularly high-level cleanliness. This improved the efficiency of individual clean rooms by allowing areas to adopt different degrees of cleanliness according to the location and need.

In 1991, a patent was filed for a helmet system that can be used in a medical clean room in which the user is protected from contaminated air in the environment, while the patient is protected from contaminated air being exhausted from the users helmet. Such a device decreases the possibility of operating room personnel being contaminated with viruses carried by the patients being operated upon.
The pace of clean room technology transformation has accelerated over recent years. Since the year 2000, there have been significant advances in new clean room technology, which have helped to streamline manufacturing and research processes, while also reducing the risk of contamination. Most of the technological developments of the past decade have been directed towards the manufacture of sterile products, particularly aseptically filled products.

In 2003, Eli Lilly pioneered the development of a new system for the prevention and containment of cross contamination during the manufacture of pharmaceutical powders using a specially designed fog cart. This allows the operator to be covered by an exceptionally fine fog of water on exit from a critical area, virtually eliminating the risk of transferring dust traces beyond their proper confines.

The Future of Clean Rooms
Today, clean rooms are used in variety of applications. The presence of these units can be seen in the manufacturing of semiconductor and other electronic components, as well as in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Furthermore clean room technology has more recently been applied to micro- and Nano-system processes, and this looks certain to be an area of growth in coming years. The development of clean room technology is likely to continue to be driven by certain key factors including the increasingly technical use of exotic physical and biological phenomena, the central role of increasingly fine structures, the creation and use of materials of the highest purity, and the increasingly broad-based utilization of biotechnology. Given the scale of these challenges, clean room technology looks set to remain indispensable to production in coming years.

A Completely White Labelled SaaS Technology Solution for Employee Recognition Program Providers

Employee recognition service providers have everything to gain by using a SaaS platform to deliver their employee recognition programs to clients. In my previous article, I discussed the many benefits associated with SaaS technology solution such as increased speed to market, reduced infrastructure costs, affordability and scalability.

Since being introduced, SaaS technology solutions have significantly improved the way employee recognition program providers deliver their services to their clients. Essentially, there are two ways to improve your current employee recognition program to become a Saas-based system.

Choice #1: Build it from scratch. The first choice is to build the technology from scratch. This is a huge undertaking that will take years to complete and by the time you are ready to launch ready current SaaS providers have already advanced their solution 10 fold. Technological advances move quickly and while SaaS technology itself is a perfect example of this so is the recent Cloud revolution for those that are looking to build your own SaaS platform the need for continual updates is just the beginning of what lies ahead.

Building your own platform will cost millions of dollars plus you will need to budget for a full time IT department to support your solution itself as well as your on-going client needs once it is built. There is no end to IT development if you truly want to keep up with the ever changing marketplace.

Choice #2: License your solution. The second and more attractive choice is to become a reseller or business partner of a fully developed SaaS-based employee recognition programs. A good SaaS solution provider for employee recognition programs will offer a completely white labelled “all in one” solution that often includes a fully developed “end-to-end” solution. Just license and youre ready to hit the market.

Why re-invent the wheel license your solution!

For those that see the shift to SaaS as a core requirement for staying competitive within the Employee Recognition marketplace but dont want to make this kind of investment there are SaaS technology providers available today.

A complete “end-to-end” solution should include every employee recognition application there is today plus a full admin and communication center, social media and mobile applications.

One of the biggest benefits for licensing your SaaS technology solution is the reduced cost of ownership. This reduced cost of ownership happens because your solution is fully maintained and supported by your SaaS provider which means limited need for a dedicated IT team, no server hosting costs as well as access as and when you need IT support and all on a project basis only. All of the initial set-up costs, including development, infrastructure, training and support is included by your solution provider who should also deliver on-going updates that help your company to attract new client revenue streams as well as deliver ongoing added value to your clients.

In 2011, IT Channel Planet reported on an IBM survey conducted by Opinion Research Corp. The report revealed that mid-sized businesses are shifting investment priorities more toward innovation and growth, and a significant portion of resources are likely to be allocated towards SaaS computing. About 70 percent of the respondents intend to work with a local channel partner to help meet their technology objectives.

The information technology industry is extremely competitive and evolving at a rapid pace. Time can often mean the difference between a companys success and failure. Partnering with other organizations has become one way that many companies dominate their market space quickly, swiftly and affordably.

Touch Screen Phones- The Time To Move With The Fast Technology

In these recent years there is great advancement in the technology. Whether it is your computer system or a laptop, there is mammoth growth of the gadgets. The other big achievement in the field of technology is the invention of the mobile phone. There is no doubt that today each and every person is totally depended on the computers but there is also no doubt in that also that a large population of people cannot imagine of a life without this gadget. So, being the most essential part of our life, it is very necessary to move forward with the technologies which are commonly used in the mobile phones. The one example of this fast technology is using of Touchscreen technology in the mobile phones.

Today Touch Screen phones are not just a result of a simple technology but today, it has totally change the lives of the people, providing them total comfort with fast performance. With the capacity of performing all the functions with a mere touch of a finger, Touch Screen mobile phones are more user friendly and fast as compare to other devices. This technology used mobile phones are not just only said as an advance gadget but also treat as a best phones in-terms of performance.

With the popularity of the touch screen technology in mobile phones, the mobile market of Touch Screen phones has really got a great hike. To satisfy the need of the touch screen phones lovers, all major brands have introduced this technology equipped phones. Whether its your top most brands like Nokia, Samsung, LG, Apple and HTC or less popular brands like Motorola and Acer, all these brands are now manufacturing Touch Screen handsets for the users. Not just only the performance, all these devices comes in a different new look including a huge display screen with the features like virtual keyboard with full QWERTY keypad, high resolution screen, and several advance features. Apart from all these, these technology handsets also comes loaded with several other impressive features like 3G, 2G, MP3 player, camera, FM radio, Games, GPS, Bluetooth and lots more.

While taking any Touch Screen mobile phone the user must be aware about its technology and use. At, mobilesemporium.co.uk, the user can easily find a wide range of latest Touch Screen Phones with their detailed descriptions and other information. The user can select from the top touch screen handsets like Samsung Galaxy S2, Apple iPhone 4, Sony Ericsson Xperia Arc, Samsung Galaxy S, LG Optimus 3D at affordable rates.

Over-Stimulation The Price of Technology Addiction

In the multitudes of research used for health and wellness education, there seems to be an underlying and unifying theme: over-stimulation. With the increasing dependence on technology, people are required to do less physical activity, at the same time increasing mental activity. While often useful, if not managed carefully, this can manifest in poor health.

Consider how society has shifted from early pioneer days to the current technological one. Just a few things we no longer must do to survive:

Hunt for food
Gather firewood for winter heating and cooking
Raise the food we eat, requiring labor to raise livestock and tend fields
Walk to town, or walk for basic transportation
Work at a physical labor-based job
Do labor by hand, not using machines
Cook food from scratch, using homegrown ingredients
Physically meet up, to talk or communicate with others
Go to town to get basic supplies
Share particular talents or skills as a means to trade for needed items

All of these tasks, while time consuming, served a vital function in total health promotion, including physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and financial health. Days were spent on basic physical tasks, which also occupied the mind and helped to meet other essential needs. Physical activity was a part of every persons day and most slept easy because they were physically tired. Obesity was not an issue, in part due to the effort it took to obtain, grow, and prepare food. Most often, physical activity offset the calories available for consumption.

Social interaction was one on one and greatly appreciated after long spells out on the farm. Studies now show that quality social interaction is beneficial to health and feelings of wellbeing. With fewer options to vie for ones attention, focus was centered on the task at hand. People took pride in their workmanship and the fruits of their labor. While often harsh, pioneers days were simpler, with fewer options. This made for fewer daily choices to keep the mind constantly stimulated.

Just a few things we now do or have that contribute to poor health:

Food that is readily accessible, high in preservatives, high in calories, and low in nutrition (Not requiring lengthy preparation or effort)
Sedentary jobs using technology, versus physical labor
Machines to assist with physical tasks
Communication through phone, text, computer, or email
Easy access to unlimited information
24/7 accessibility through cell phones and computers
Actual face to face interaction unnecessary
Clock time at jobs that do not utilize ones skills or talents
Distractions available from multiple sources simultaneously, such as TV, radio, computer, cell phones, gaming devices, and other portable electronics
Options to fill time are infinite, requiring constant moment to moment choices regarding how time will be spent

This list reveals the insidious side of technological advances, allowing one to get things done more efficiently, so that there is time to fill the day with more things to do. Such mental over-stimulation was never intended. Is it any wonder “stress related” illness is the number one cause for most doctor visits? Being mentally over-stimulated and physically sluggish is at the heart of many debilitating health problems seen today.

Look at the rise in ADHD, not much of that in pioneer days. Take insomnia for another example. A new federal health study showed at least 8.6 million Americans report needing prescription medication to fall asleep. Today’s stimulating lifestyles make it challenging to focus and difficult to shut the mind down for sleep. Combine that with the fact that in most lifestyles, the only physical activity comes from a conscious choice to “work out,” and the problem becomes more apparent.

This does not begin to scratch the surface of health related issues directly related to being over-stimulated. People need drugs, nicotine, alcohol, and other such behaviors to cope with the over-stimulated lives that are common today. This article is meant to throw up a red flag and get people to consider how much they are allowing into their life through their dependence on technology.

The bottom line is, if you feel run down, burnt out, or regularly need to use a substance to help you cope with a busy lifestyle, it is time to take stock of how time is spent and develop boundaries for technology use. Make no mistake that is a tough choice. However, the next choice may prove even more difficult. Block out time to do nothing, to focus on one task without electronic or other distractions, and to clear the mind, while relaxing the body. It is also essential to add physical activity into each day, the kind the challenges the muscles and lungs.

All of these suggestions are easy to do. The problem is, they are just as easy NOT to do. It was once said, “Live by the sword, die by the sword.” The same could be said of technology. “Live by technology, die by technology.” Choose carefully the stimulation allowed into each day. Create rituals or routines that allow for unwinding and relaxation. Build associations with healthy behaviors or substances such as herbal tea, warm milk, essential oils, peaceful music, sitting in nature, yoga, massage, meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, and etc. These associations will build with practice and can begin to signal the brain it is time to shut down. Just like Pavlov’s dog, conditioned responses can be created. Just be sure they are the kind of responses that promote health not endanger it.

Technology and Education

Technology has completely changed the way mankind works. It has become an integral part of our lives and basic movements of man are now solely dependent upon technology. Technology has prepared mankind to work faster, smarter and allows the brain to concentrate on other exciting and challenging goals and milestones. The last decade is dedicated to the workmanship of technology and its impact on the human race. http://www.360career.com/. It has given us sleeker cell phones, internet mobility on personal computers that can now fit in purses and an extensive database of knowledge called the internet.

There is no avenue that technology has not touched. The complete workforce of mankind now works with technology. Thousands of industries and organizations around the world are now reaping the benefits of technology. And the education system is no exception to the rule. Technology has advanced and honed policies, streamlined academic activity and provided extensive reporting that was never possible before. Unique systems are now available in the market that immediately notify parents if their child or children arrive late at school and allow teachers to remotely send homework and grade papers online. Students across the world now search and prepare term papers all from simple browsing the internet at home or libraries. The basic principles of knowledge have not changed but the very edifice of obtaining and teaching has been revolutionalised by technology.

Other benefits of technology in the education arena are the administration functionality that technology provides. It allows colleges and universities to monitor thousands of students at one given go and allow hundreds of students to register classes that are suitable to the teachers and the students by the click of a mouse. Elementary and high schools can use sophisticated voice mails to update parents of the progress of the updates of their children. Technology has also been able to successfully deploy dedicated networks across intranets within college domains to share documents and reports.

The primal goal of these communications servers are designed to streamline information and messaging within the school systems administrative and teaching community. This type of system can also help facilitate communications between various designated groups, clubs, the entire student body, and parents. Through this, everyone can stay better informed of special events and check the system frequently for any updates or changes that may have occurred. All student games, activities and personal information of students can be stored and retrieved at any given time by school officials.

The other important benefit of technology in the education sector is the exponential increase in enrollment due to the availability of online courses. People do not have to be physically available to take part in an important meeting or class across the world. Simple bandwidth connectivity will do the job and allow thousands of people in one global sphere to easily communicate with people in dispersed areas.

Hundreds of companies exist that build and provide applications and sophisticated softwares that further improve on the benefits of technology in education. Applications now provide video conferencing and remote logins to servers. For more information and details visit: http://www.360career.com/content/Technology-and-education.asp